Powerflush nearby to Leicester
Leicester is a city, unitary authority, and county town of Leicestershire in England’s East Midlands.
The city is located on the Soar River, near the eastern end of the National Forest. It is located to the north of Birmingham and Coventry, to the south of Nottingham, and to the west of Peterborough.
The mid-year estimate of the City of Leicester unitary authority’s population in 2016 was 348,300, an increase of approximately 18,500 (5.6 percent) from the 2011 census figure of 329,839, making it the most populous municipality in the East Midlands region. The surrounding metropolitan area is also the 11th most populous in England and the 13th most populous in the United Kingdom.
Leicester is located at the crossroads of two major railway lines, the north–south Midland Main Line and the east–west Birmingham to London Stansted CrossCountry line, as well as the M1/M69 motorways and the A6/A46 trunk routes. Leicester is home to the football club Leicester City as well as the rugby club Leicester Tigers.
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Leicester is one of England’s oldest cities, dating back at least two millennia. The Romans encountered a native Iron Age settlement at the site that appears to have developed in the 2nd or 1st centuries BC. Little is known about this settlement or the River Soar at the time, though roundhouses from this era have been excavated and appear to have clustered along roughly 8 hectares (20 acres) of the Soar’s east bank above its confluence with the Trent. This section of the Soar was divided into two channels: a main stream to the east and a narrower channel to the west, separated by a presumably marshy island. The settlement appears to have been in charge of a ford across the larger channel. The later Roman name was a latinate form of the Brittonic word for “ramparts” (cf. Gaelic rath and the nearby villages of Ratby and Ratcliffe), implying that the location was an oppidum. The plural form of the name implies that it was originally made up of several villages. The Celtic tribe that controlled the area was later known as the “Coritanians,” but an inscription discovered in 1983 revealed that this was a corruption of the original “Corieltauvians.” The Corieltauvians are thought to have ruled over an area roughly the size of the East Midlands.
During their conquest of southern Britain, the Romans are thought to have arrived in the Leicester area around AD 47. The Corieltauvian settlement was located near a bridge on the Fosse Way, a Roman road that connected the legionary camps of Isca (Exeter) and Lindum (Lincoln). It is unknown whether the Romans fortified and garrisoned the site, but it gradually developed from around the year 50 onwards as the Corieltauvians’ tribal capital under the name Ratae Corieltauvorum. It was given a forum and a bathhouse in the second century. It was announced in 2013 that a Roman cemetery dating back to AD 300 had been discovered just outside the old city walls. The remains of Roman Leicester’s baths can be seen at the Jewry Wall, and recovered artefacts are displayed in the adjacent museum.
Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain, mediaeval knowledge of the town is limited. Certainly, there is some continuation of occupation of the town in the 5th and 6th centuries, albeit on a much smaller scale. Its memory was preserved as the Cair Lerion of the Britons’ History. Leicester was occupied by the Middle Angles after the Saxon invasion of Britain and was later administered by the kingdom of Mercia. It was made a bishopric in 679 or 680, and this see lasted until the 9th century, when it was captured by Danish Vikings. Their settlement was named one of the Danelaw’s Five Burghs, though this position was only temporary. Meanwhile, the Saxon bishop fled to Dorchester-on-Thames, and Leicester was not made a bishopric again until the Church of St Martin was renamed Leicester Cathedral in 1927. In the early 10th century, the settlement was known as Ligeraceaster.
Following the Norman conquest, Leicester was recorded as Ledecestre in William’s Domesday Book. It was noted as a city (civitas), but this status was lost in the 11th century due to power struggles between the Church and the aristocracy, and it did not regain this status until 1919.
Around the year 1136, Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, naming a King Leir as an eponymous founder figure. According to Geoffrey’s account, Cordelia buried her father beneath the river in a chamber dedicated to Janus, and his feast day was celebrated annually.
When Simon de Montfort was made Lord of Leicester in 1231, he granted the city the right to expel the Jewish population “in my time or in the time of any of my heirs to the end of the world.” He justified his actions as “for the good of my soul, as well as the souls of my ancestors and successors.” After taking advice from the scholar and cleric Robert Grosseteste, Leicester’s Jews were allowed to relocate to the eastern suburbs, which were controlled by de Montfort’s great-aunt and rival, Margaret, Countess of Winchester. There is evidence that Jews remained in the city until 1253, and it is possible that the banishment within the city was not strictly enforced. After Grosseteste’s death, De Montfort issued a second edict for the expulsion of Leicester’s Jews in 1253. De Montfort’s anti-Jewish persecution in Leicester and elsewhere was part of a larger pattern that resulted in the expulsion of the Jewish population from England in 1290.
The earls of Leicester and Lancaster raised the town’s status during the 14th century. Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester established a hospital for the poor and infirm in the area now known as The Newarke, south of the castle (the “new work”). Henry’s son, the great Henry of Grosmont, 4th Earl of Lancaster and Leicester, who became the first Duke of Lancaster, expanded and improved his father’s foundation and built the collegiate Church of the Annunciation of Our Lady of The Newarke. This church was destroyed during the reign of King Edward VI (a portion of which survives in the basement of De Montfort University’s Hawthorn Building). It became a popular pilgrimage destination because it housed a thorn said to be from the Crown of Thorns, which was given to the Duke by the King of France. The church (described by Leland in the 16th century as “not large but exceeding fair”) effectively became a Lancastrian mausoleum. Blanche of Lancaster, Duke Henry’s daughter, married John of Gaunt, and their son Henry Bolingbroke became King Henry IV when he deposed King Richard II. Duke Henry was buried in the Church of the Annunciation, where his father had previously been re-interred. Constance of Castile, Duchess of Lancaster (second wife of John of Gaunt) and Mary de Bohun, first wife of Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) and mother of King Henry V were both buried there (she did not become queen because she died before Bolingbroke became king). In 1399, John of Gaunt died at Leicester Castle. When his son ascended to the throne, the Earldom of Leicester and the Duchy of Lancaster were elevated to royal titles (and the latter remains so).
King Richard III was buried in Leicester’s Greyfriars Church at the end of the War of the Roses, a Franciscan Friary and Church that was demolished after its dissolution in 1538. The King Richard III Visitor Centre now stands on the site of that church (until 2012 by more modern buildings and a car park). His corpse was said to have been thrown into the river, but some historians believe his tomb and remains were destroyed during Henry VIII’s dissolution of the monasteries. An archaeological investigation of the car park, however, revealed a skeleton in September 2012, which DNA testing helped confirm was related to two descendants of Richard III’s sister. Because of the DNA evidence and the shape of the spine, it was determined that the skeleton belonged to Richard III. Richard III was reburied in Leicester Cathedral in 2015, near the high altar.
The Office for National Statistics has defined a Leicester Urban Area (LUA), which is broadly defined as the immediate Leicester conurbation but lacks administrative status. The LUA encompasses the unitary authority area as well as several towns, villages, and suburbs located outside the administrative boundaries of the city.
Leicester has a maritime climate, with mild to warm summers and cool winters, rain throughout the year, and low levels of sunshine. The nearest official weather station was located in Newtown Linford, about 5 miles (8.0 km) northwest of Leicester city centre, on the outskirts of the city. However, observations ceased in 2003. Market Bosworth, about 10 miles (16 kilometres) west of the city centre, currently has the closest weather station.
The highest temperature recorded at Newtown Linford was 34.5 °C (94.1 °F) in August 1990, while 35.1 °C (95.2 °F) was recorded at Leicester University in August 2003. The highest temperature recorded in Leicester since records began is 36.7 °C (98.1 °F) on 15 July 1868. The average annual maximum temperature is 28.7 degrees Celsius (83.7 degrees Fahrenheit). On 11.3 days of the year, the temperature should be 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or higher.
In January 1963, the lowest temperature recorded at Newtown Linford was 16.1 °C (3.0 °F). During the course of the year, 54.9 air frosts are typically recorded.
The annual rainfall averages 684.4 mm, with 1 mm or more falling on 120.8 days. All averages are for the years 1971–2000.