Powerflush nearby to Northampton
Northampton is a market town and civil parish in England’s East Midlands. It is located on the River Nene, 60 miles (97 kilometers) north of London and 50 miles (80 kilometers) south of Birmingham. Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire and the largest settlement in the unitary authority of West Northamptonshire. Northampton is one of the largest towns (rather than cities) in England, with a population of 212,100 according to the 2011 census (225,100 as of 2018 estimates).
Settlement in the area can be traced back to the Bronze Age, the Romans, and the Anglo-Saxons. The town rose to national prominence in the Middle Ages with the establishment of Northampton Castle, an occasional royal residence that hosted the Parliament of England on a regular basis. The town walls surrounded many churches, monasteries, and the University of Northampton in medieval Northampton. Richard I granted it a town charter in 1189, and King John appointed a mayor in 1215. In addition, the town was the site of two medieval battles, in 1264 and 1460.
Northampton backed the Parliamentary Roundheads during the English Civil War, and Charles II ordered the town walls and most of the castle to be demolished. In 1675, the Great Fire of Northampton destroyed much of the town. It was quickly rebuilt and expanded rapidly with the 18th century’s industrial development. With the arrival of the Grand Union Canal and railways in the nineteenth century, Northampton expanded further, becoming a center for footwear and leather manufacture.
Northampton’s growth was limited until it was designated as a New Town in 1968, which accelerated the town’s development. In the year 2000, it applied for city status but was denied.
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Northampton was first mentioned in writing in 914 under the name Ham tune, which literally means “home town.”
The prefix “North” was added later to distinguish it from other Hampton towns, most notably Southampton.
Northantone was recorded in the Domesday Book (1086), which evolved into Norhamptone by the 13th century and Northampton by the 17th century.
Present-day Northampton is the most recent in a line of settlements that dates back to the Bronze Age. From approximately 3500 BC to 2000 BC, relics discovered in the Briar Hill district show evidence of a Neolithic encampment within a large circular earthwork where local farmers gathered for tribal ceremonies and seasonal events.
People in the British Iron Age typically lived in fortified hill forts. Hunsbury Hill, which dates from around 400 BC, is an example of this settlement; a circular ditch and a bank surrounded by a timber wall enclosing an area of 160 acres (65 ha). A small rural settlement is thought to have existed during the Roman period in the present-day district of Duston; remains of Roman pottery have been discovered there.
Following a Danish invasion, the central area of the town was transformed into a stronghold known as a burh, most likely by Anglo-Saxons. By the time of the Peace of Wedmore in 878, the Burgh was in Danish hands and served as a base for one of the Danish armies.  The settlement was surrounded by a ditch and fortified with earth ramparts. After conquering Mercia, the Danes transformed the settlement into a military and administrative center that became part of the Danelaw. The Danish army of Northampton, on the other hand, surrendered in 921 to Edward the Elder, Saxon King of Wessex (who controlled the southern and western parts of the English Kingdom of Mercia).
Regenhere of Northampton, an East Anglian Saint with localized veneration, was buried in Northampton in the 9th century. Northampton had an earl and an army dependent on it by 918, and its territory extended all the way to the River Welland.
Northampton flourished as a river port and trading center after Edward the Elder established it as the center of one of the new shires.
When the Mercians successfully defended the town in a siege by King Olaf of York in 940, it resisted the invading forces of Danish opposition in Northumbria, but it was burned down in 1010 by a Danish army, and again in 1065 by the rebellious northern earls Edwin and Morcar. Despite this, the Domesday Book lists Northantone as having 316 houses and a population of 2000 people, placing it between Warwick and Leicester in terms of size.
With the Norman conquest of England, the town rose to national prominence: its central location in England made Northampton a valuable strategical point for government as well as a convenient meeting place for political, social, ecclesiastical, and military events.
Northampton Castle is thought to have been built around 1084 by Simon de Senlis, the first Earl of Northampton.
It was originally a stockaded earth and timber structure that was later rebuilt in stone.
From the reign of King Henry I in 1130 until that of King Richard II, the castle served as an occasional royal residence. King John stayed at the castle on a regular basis and relocated The Treasury there in 1205. There were 32 Parliaments held there. Northampton’s last Parliament was held in 1380. The trial of Thomas Becket in 1164, the publication of the Assize of Northampton in 1176, the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, the passage of the Statute of Northampton in 1328, and the imposition of poll tax in 1380 were all significant events in the castle’s history. The castle also hosted royal tournaments and feasts.
Simon de Senlis is also credited with the construction of the medieval town walls, which encircled about 245 acres (99 ha) and had four main gates. The circular pattern of the main roads surrounding the town center marks the original position of the walls, despite the fact that they are now demolished.  De Senlis established the Cluniac Priory of St Andrew’s in the Semilong area, as well as The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, one of only four round churches in England, and All Hallows Church on the current site of All Saint’s Church.  His son, Simon II de Senlis, constructed St Peter’s Church on the site of a former Anglo-Saxon palace and Northampton Castle. Simon II de Senlis also established Delapré Abbey, another Cluniac priory that still exists today. Other medieval Northampton priories include St James’ Abbey, Graye Friers, Blackfriars, and Whitefriars. The medieval hospital St. John’s was located east of Bridge Street.  A network of medieval tunnels remains beneath Northampton’s central business district, circling All Saint’s Church and the Market Square, but their purpose, extent, and significance have been debated.
Originally, the town was ruled by officials acting on behalf of the King, who collected taxes and enforced the law. On November 18, 1189, King Richard I granted the town its first charter in exchange for funds to fund his crusades. The charter granted the townspeople certain legal and administrative rights and independence. In 1215, King John authorized the appointment of William Tilly as the town’s first Mayor and directed that “twelve of your town’s better and more discreet” form a council to assist him. The fact that only London, York, and King’s Lynn had mayors by this date emphasizes Northampton’s importance at the time. Until 1835, the mayor ruled with 24 councillors and 48 freemen in a closed body.
Markets and fairs were an important part of the town’s economy during the Middle Ages. When Henry III ordered that the selling of goods in the churchyard of All Saint’s be relocated to the Market Square in 1235, the Market Square rose to prominence.  Corn Hill, Malt Hill, Mercer Row, Gold Street, Sheep Street, and Horse Market are examples of street names in the town that indicate trades and market centers.  Cloth and wool were important industries, but they declined. Northampton had a large Jewish population in the 13th century, centered on Gold Street. Some Jewish residents were executed in 1277, two years after Edward I passed the Statute of the Jewry, while the remainder were driven out of town. A medieval Jewish cemetery and the Northampton Medieval Synagogue are among the archaeological sites.
Northampton was heavily damaged during the First Barons’ War. In response to King John’s oppression of his subjects, the barons besieged Northampton Castle. Royalist forces retaliated by destroying a large portion of the town. The Second Barons’ War began when King Henry III’s forces overran Simon de Montfort’s supporters. The First Battle of Northampton took place in 1264 on the site of Northampton Castle, when King Henry III and his son Prince Edward launched an attack with a large army, pillaged the town, and took prisoners.
The Black Death pandemic killed more than half of Northampton’s population in 1349. The population was 2,200 in 1377. The town’s wealth and importance as a national center were rapidly dwindling. During the War of the Roses in 1460, the Second Battle of Northampton took place in the meadows between the River Nene and Delapré Abbey. The Lancastrians were defeated by the Yorkists, and King Henry VI was imprisoned. Northampton was declared “in great desolation and ruin” by the Mayor in 1484. The dissolution of the monasteries in 1538 resulted in further devastation of the medieval town. Between March and September 1638, Northampton was devastated by the Plague, which killed 665 people.
Northampton is formally part of the East Midlands region, but it is also referred to as part of the South Midlands “growth area” in government planning. The town is located 30 miles (48 kilometers) south-southeast of Leicester, 16 miles (26 kilometers) north-northwest of Milton Keynes, 43 miles (69 kilometers) west of Cambridge, 37 miles (60 kilometers) northeast of Oxford, and the same distance southwest of Peterborough.