Powerflush nearby to Newark
Newark-on- Trent, also known as Newark, is a market town and civil parish in the Nottinghamshire district of Newark and Sherwood. It is located on the Trent River and was once a major inland port. The A1 road, which follows the route of the ancient Great North Road, bypasses the town. Because it is located on a major Roman road, the Fosse Way, the town’s origins are most likely Roman. It grew up around Newark Castle, which is now demolished, as a hub for the wool and cloth trades. It was besieged by Parliamentary forces during the English Civil War and relieved by Royalist forces led by Prince Rupert. Newark’s market place is lined with many historical buildings, and one of its most notable landmarks is St Mary Magdalene church, which has a towering spire that stands at 232 feet (71 metres) and is the town’s tallest structure. The church is the tallest in Nottinghamshire and can be seen as you enter or bypass Newark.
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History from the beginning
The name Newark first appears in the cartulary of Eynsham Abbey in Oxfordshire, where it appears as “Newercha” around 1054–1057 and “Niweweorche” around 1075–1092. In the Domesday Book of 1086, it is referred to as “Newerche.” The name “New werk” means “New fort” in English.
Because of its location on an important Roman road, the Fosse Way, the town’s origins are possibly Roman. Newark is mentioned in a document purporting to be a charter from 664 AD as having been granted to the Abbey of Peterborough by King Wulfhere of Mercia. An Anglo-Saxon pagan cemetery dating from the early fifth to early seventh centuries has been discovered near the Fosse Way and the River Trent in Millgate, Newark. Cremated remains were interred in pottery urns.
During Edward the Confessor’s reign, Newark belonged to Godiva and her husband Leofric, Earl of Mercia, who gave it to Stow Minster in 1055. Stow Minster retained the revenues of Newark after the Norman Conquest, but it came under the control of the Norman Bishop Remigius de Fécamp, whose death passed control to the Bishops of Lincoln from 1092 until the reign of Edward VI. At the time of the Domesday survey, Newark had burgesses. It had long been a borough by prescription, according to evidence from Edward III’s reign. The Anglo-Saxon period (10th–11th centuries) saw the establishment of the Newark wapentake (hundred) in the east of Nottinghamshire.
From the Middle Ages to the Stuart era, Newark Castle was a fortified manor house founded by the Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Elder. Remigius de Fécamp, Bishop of Lincoln, built an earthwork motte-and-bailey fortress on the site in 1073. The river bridge, as well as St Leonard’s Hospital, were built around this time under a charter from Henry I. The bishopric also obtained a charter from the king to hold a five-day fair at the castle each year, and under King Stephen, a mint was established. In 1216, King John died of dysentery in Newark Castle.
The town grew into a regional hub for the wool and cloth trade, and by Henry II’s reign, a major market was held there. The town’s Wednesday and Saturday markets were established between 1156 and 1329, thanks to a series of charters from the Bishop of Lincoln. Following his death, Henry III attempted to restore order to the country, but the mercenary Robert de Gaugy refused to hand over Newark Castle to the rightful owner, the Bishop of Lincoln. This resulted in the Dauphin of France (later King Louis VIII of France) laying an eight-day siege on the king’s behalf, which ended with an agreement to pay the mercenary to leave. “Poll tax records show an adult population of 1,178, excluding beggars and clergy, making Newark one of the largest 25 or so towns in England” around the time of Edward III’s death in 1377.
In 1457, a flood washed away the Trent Bridge. Despite the fact that it was not required by law, the Bishop of Lincoln, John Chaworth, funded a new oak bridge with stone defensive towers at either end. Robert Parsons drowned in the swollen Trent River at Newark in January or February 1571 or 1572.
Following the 16th-century break with Rome, the establishment of the Church of England, and the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII executed the Vicar of Newark, Henry Lytherland, for refusing to recognise the king as the head of the Church. The dissolution had an impact on Newark’s political landscape. Even more radical changes occurred in 1547, when the Bishop of Lincoln transferred ownership of the town to the Crown. In 1549, Newark was incorporated with an alderman and twelve assistants, and Elizabeth I confirmed and extended the charter.
Due to the town’s growing commercial prosperity, Charles I reincorporated it with a mayor and aldermen. Except for a brief surrender under James II, this charter governed the corporation until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835.
The American Civil War
During the English Civil War, Newark was a Royalist stronghold, with Charles I raising his standard nearby in Nottingham. “Newark was besieged three times and finally surrendered only after the King ordered it to do so after his own surrender.” It was attacked by two horsemen in February 1643, but they were repulsed. The town fielded up to 600 soldiers at times and raided Nottingham, Grantham, Northampton, Gainsborough, and other towns with varying degrees of success, but enough to bring it national attention. In 1644, forces from Nottingham, Lincoln, and Derby besieged Newark until it was relieved in March by Prince Rupert.
After more raiding, Parliament launched a new siege near the end of January 1645, but it was relieved about a month later by Sir Marmaduke Langdale. In June 1645, Newark cavalry fought alongside the king’s forces, who were soundly defeated at the Battle of Naseby, near Leicester.
The final siege began in November 1645, after the town’s defences had been significantly strengthened. Two major forts, the Queen’s Sconce to the south-west and the King’s Sconce to the north-east, had been built just outside the town, both close to the river, with defensive walls and a 214-mile water-filled ditch around the town. The King’s order to surrender in May 1646 was only accepted under protest by the town’s garrison. Following that, much of the defences were destroyed, including the Castle, which was left in essentially the same condition as it is today. The Queen’s Sconce was largely unaltered; its remains can be found in Sconce and Devon Park.
Georgian and early-nineteenth-century
Around 1770, the Great North Road (now the A616) around Newark was raised on a series of arches to keep it clear of the regular floods. A special Act of Parliament passed in 1773 authorised the construction of a town hall adjacent to the Market Place. Newark Town Hall, designed by John Carr of York and completed in 1776, is now a Grade I listed building that houses a museum and an art gallery. The Duke of Newcastle, Lord of the Manor and major landowner in the area at the time, built a new brick bridge with stone facing to replace a dilapidated one next to the Castle in 1775. This is still a major thoroughfare in the town today.
Daniel Holt (1766–1799), a printer and newspaper owner in Newark during the 18th century, was a well-known reform advocate. He was imprisoned for printing a leaflet advocating parliamentary reform and selling a Thomas Paine pamphlet.
In the midst of parliamentary reform, the Duke of Newcastle evicted over a hundred Newark tenants whom he suspected of supporting the Liberal/Radical candidate (Wilde) rather than his candidate, the Duke of Newcastle (Michael Sadler, a progressive Conservative).
“Chartists and rioters came from Nottingham into Newark, parading the streets with penny loaves dripped in blood carried on pikes, crying ‘Bread or blood,'” J. S. Baxter, a schoolboy in Newark in 1830–1840, wrote in The Hungry Forties: Life under the Bread Tax (London, 1904), a book about the Corn Laws.
Newark is located 21 miles (34 kilometres) from Nottingham, 19 miles (31 kilometres) from Lincoln, and 40 miles (64 kilometres) from Leicester. The A46 road connects them all to the town. The town is also approximately 20 miles (32 kilometres) from Mansfield, 14 miles (23 kilometres) from Grantham, 19 miles (31 kilometres) from Sleaford, 9 miles (14 kilometres) from Southwell, and 11 miles (18 kilometres) from Bingham.
Newark is located on the Trent River’s bank, with the Devon River running as a tributary through the town. Newark grew up around Newark Castle, which is now ruined, and a large market place that is now lined with historic buildings. It is located at the intersection of the Great North Road and the Fosse Way.
Newark is joined to the parish of Balderton to the south-east by a single built-up area. Farndon is to the south on the A46, and Winthorpe is to the north.
Newark’s growth and development have been aided by one of the few bridges over the River Trent, the river’s navigability, the presence of the Great North Road (the A1, etc.), and, later, the advancement of the railways, which brought a junction between the East Coast Main Line and the Nottingham to Lincoln route. “Newark became a significant inland port, particularly for the wool trade,” though it was somewhat industrialised in the Victorian era and later had an ironworks, engineering, brewing, and a sugar refinery.
Ernest Marples, the then-Minister of Transport, inaugurated the A1 bypass in 1964. The £34 million A46 single-carriageway opened in October 1990.